Gene selection-The process involves choosing the desired gene that is further inserted into the target host. The genes were then grown in bacteria for desired replication as bacteria replicated faster and are readily available. Later, the organism is kept under cold temperatures usually -80 degrees Celsius. Processes like gene mapping or microarrays then identified the desired genetic expression.
Gene isolation- The desired cells were taken, and DNA is extracted using chloroform or ethanol. The extracted DNA is then cultivated into vector plasmid inside the bacterium, where it multiplies using the bacterial cellular mechanism. The replicated is then extracted, and the selected gene is separated using a transcriptase enzyme. The next step involves the identification of the gene and can be done using ethidium bromide dye during electrophoresis. The extracted gene is then multiplied using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Gene modification- The selected gene must contain a promoter, selectable marker and a target gene. The genes start transcription by promoter gene and stop by the termination gene. The selectable marker assists in identifying the transformed genes, usually antibiotic-resistant genes.
Gene insertion- The desired gene is introduced in the target host by a process called transformation, in which the DNA is injected through the cell membranes. Another process called electroporation involves the use of the electric energy for gene introduction into the host.
Genetically Modified Crops
The concept of genetic engineering has brought in a revolution in the field of agriculture. Various GM crops, including Bt brinjal, cotton, soya bean, tomato, etc. have been genetically engineered and made resistant to pests.
Bacillus Thuringiensis is an organism that acts as a pest for silkworm and degrades the quality and yield of cotton. By genetic engineering, the cotton was modified, and a cry gene is encoding an endotoxin. The gene was isolated and modified, followed by gene replication. Then gene was introduced into plant cells and replicated using tissue culture. When the bacterium feeds on the plant, the endotoxin triggers the ion-channel inside the bacterium that increases the potassium level that degrades the epithelium cells in the gut region, leading to the death of bacteria.
Advantages of Genetically Modified food-
Genetically modified food includes many features, like,
GM food is modified and gains more nutritious value and is cheaper
The plants get resistant to pests and herbicides that help to increase the yield
The shelf life of plants including fruits and vegetable increases (Bt Tomato)
GM food reduces various toxic effects from plant products.
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