The four-region anatomical scheme divides the abdomen into four abdominal cavities. The anatomical planes parasagittal (2) and transverse (2) planes or 2 horizontal and 2 vertical lines divide the four quadrants of the abdomen into nine regions. The horizontal lines include the subcostal (upper) and intertubercular (lower) lines, while the vertical lines include the mid-clavicular lines. The main factor is that most organs can be part of multiple regions, like small intestines being in many regions. The central regions include the epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric regions; while the other six regions are bilateral regions on the sides of the abdomen; and the umbilicus marks the center of all nine abdominal regions. The abdominal cavity includes nine anatomical regions, including;
The left hypochondriac region includes the stomach, parts of the liver (left lobe) and small intestine, left kidney, the tail of the pancreas, spleen, and transverse and descending colon.
The right hypochondriac region includes the gallbladder, liver, small intestine, ascending and transverse colon, right kidney.
The epigastric region includes the esophagus, pancreas, liver, stomach, spleen, right and left kidneys and suprarenal glands, ureters, small intestine, and transverse colon
The left lumbar region includes parts of the small intestine, descending colon, and left kidney (tip).
The right lumbar region includes parts of the liver (tip), gallbladder, right kidney, small intestine, ascending colon.
Umbilical region: It includes the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, transverse colon, kidneys (medial extremities), and ureters.
The left inguinal region includes the small intestine (some parts), regions of the sigmoid and descending and sigmoid colon. Among females, the left ovary and fallopian tube fall in this region.
The right inguinal region includes the small intestine, appendix, cecum, ascending colon; in females, the right ovary and fallopian tube.
Hypogastric region: It includes the small intestine, sigmoid colon, urinary bladder, ureters, rectum. Uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries among females; and prostate glands, ductus deferens, and seminal vesicles among males.
Clinical significance of thoracic and abdominal regions
The primary purpose of anatomical divisions and regions in a human body is to provide regional descriptions of the body. This helps healthcare providers to understand these complex organ systems easily using anatomical references. These thoracic and abdominal regions are as follows:
Allow for a universal and standard representation of various organs in the body.
Aid in proposing differential diagnosis by the healthcare providers.
Aid in categorizing organs according to their location and function.
Aid in species identification and localization of the organ of pathologic origin from pain reference and experiences.
It provides radiological references to locate pathological sites.
Accurate detection of the organ of disease helps in appropriate treatment planning and guides in clinical decision-making.
To help in locating the target area accurately during surgery.
When a patient complains about epigastric pain, a physician should relate first with the stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum rather than the small intestines or rectum.
The thorax is a highly structurally and functionally region with complex pathological significance. Therefore, a complete thorough understanding of the thoracic regions helps identify, differentiate, detect, and treat various cardiorespiratory diseases. This is highly crucial to diagnose, plan, treat and save patients from life-threatening conditions affecting the thorax region like severe heart or lung conditions like ischemia, heart failure, emphysema, pneumonia, and others. In addition, thoracic regions also help to identify and treat rib fractures.
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