Signs, Symptoms and Causes of Allergy

Allergy is common among people all over the world. Allergies are seen to be caused from common and environmental substances like pollens, metals, different foods, etc. The main causes of allergy are divided into two main causes – the Environmental Factors and the Host Factors. The Host factors depend from person to person based on their age, sex, heredity, etc. The environmental factors include four different factors namely allergen levels, environmental pollution, exposure to allergens and infections diseases in childhood and the dietary changes.

The common symptoms of allergies include rashes, itching, oedema, painful swelling, anaphylaxis, breathing problems, etc. But when we examines a patient in detailed ways, one can see that different regions of body responses differently to allergens. They are discussed briefly below:

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Eyes – Eyes reddens in allergic reactions. It waters and itches too. Most common disease is allergic conjunctivitis.

Nose – Nose starts watering in allergic reactions. The person may sneeze continuously and the most common disease is allergic rhinitis.

Skin – Rashes and reddening of skin is seen in allergic reactions. Hives and Eczema are most common diseases.

Ears – A feeling of fullness and pain comes from one or both ears that are affected by allergic reactions. The ear may feel pain in case of less or no drainage of Eustachian tube. Most common disease is Acute Suppurative Otitis Media or ASOM is very common ear Allergy disease.

Sinuses – Allergic sinusitis are very painful conditions and sometimes even require surgery for curing.

Respiratory pathway – Coughing, sneezing, breathing problems like acute attack of Asthma, Laryngeal oedema, etc are the common conditions of Hay fever, a respiratory allergic reaction. Dyspnoea and bronchoconstriction are also common.

Gastrointestinal tract – Diarrhoea, Loose motions, Abdominal pain is very common allergic reaction GIT. Bloating is also seen.

Pathology of Allergy
Allergy as mentioned earlier, is an immune response that starts to grow when some foreign antigen enters our body. The allergy follows an interesting pathway which is discussed below. Firstly, the antigen that enters the body through any of the systems is caught by the Antigen Presenting Cells. These Antigen Presenting Cells or APCs are actually T Lymphocytes which can secrete Interleukin 4 or IL4. The IL4 is a particular type of cytokine. These Antigen Presenting Cells then get attached with specific Receptors called the TH2. The TH2 receptors are present in the B Lymphocytes by which T Lymphocytes can communicate with B Lymphocytes. Now B Lymphocytes are the main seat of Humoral immunity in Human body. The B Lymphocytes start producing a huge amount of antibodies which is mainly Immunoglobulin E or IgE.

These immunoglobulins then start triggering the Mast cells and Basophils to produce huge amounts of Histamine and Serotonin in blood. The increased amounts of Histamine in blood increases the tissue permeability of the capillaries which causes reddening and Swelling of skin. The Histamine also causes bronchodilation and leads to breathing problems. Now this is called the sensitization of the body to a particular antigen and it occurs when the body is facing the antigen for the 1st time. The Humoral immunity produces the memory cells when the body gets the first exposure to the antigen. Now when the body faces the same antigen for the second time, the body’s memory cells produces huge amounts of Histamine at very less time which can causes effects like itching, reddening, swelling and even anaphylaxis. In the later phases of the exposure, other white blood cells like Macrophages, Neutrophils, etc go to the site of the initiation and causes swellings. Asthmatic conditions can be seen in this phases. Although most of the allergic reactions is initiated by this pathway, the acute dermatitis is started by the CD8+ cells which are a part of the Natural Killer cells or NK cells.


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