Investigative Intelligence- Chapter 7 Lecture Notes
WHO ARE DECISIONâ€MAKERS?
â€¢Â POP has been pivotal in advancing the notion that not all crime solutions come from the police. There are a range of other decisionâ€makers in the criminal justice system, and beyond.
a. Frontâ€line officers
â€¢Â The traditional target for tactical analysis and intelligence products.
â€¢Â Unclear whether frontâ€line officers are decisionâ€makers in terms of the 3i model, because there is often a lack of accountability and they can be easily drawn away by emergency and other radio calls.
â€¢Â Yet, analysts need to maintain a relationship with patrol officers because they are often a source of quality information.
â€¢Â â€˜Tactical intelligenceâ€™ can too often deteriorate into case support.
b. Police leadership
â€¢Â Police leadership are often decisionâ€makers, but often uninformed as to the latest research on what works and what doesnâ€™t in crime prevention and reduction.
â€¢Â Much police leadership training assumes that officers know how to reduce crime, but the evidence suggests otherwise.
â€¢Â This may explain why so many policing strategies are traditional, saturation patrol type affairs.
c. Nonâ€law enforcement
â€¢Â Regulatory agencies have the added advantage of drawing on regulation and complianceâ€based processes that go beyond simple prosecution.
â€¢Â Part of the nodal governance idea, whereby police are supplemented by government and the private sector that can provide additional security services.
d. The general public
â€¢Â The main target for dissemination with community policing
â€¢Â Intelligenceâ€led policing and POP take a similar view: Communities are suitable decisionâ€makers where they can help, but are not essential decisionâ€makers for every problem.
â€¢Â Little research evidence suggests that greater dissemination to the public has an impact on crime.
â€¢Â Security networks
â€¢Â Additional agencies that are now often incorporated into security networks include Customs and border control, Immigration authorities, Defense agencies, and national security bodies.
â€¢Â 1998 Crime and Disorder Act (UK) made multiagency crime prevention initiatives a statutory requirement
â€¢Â GMAC PBM is a good example.
UNDERSTANDING THE CLIENTâ€™S ENVIRONMENT
â€¢Â When clientâ€™s donâ€™t understand the demands of good analysis, they tend to be unforgiving in respect of the time and effort required for good products. As a result, they create a pressure that can cause poor products.
â€¢Â Other agencies â€“ media, politicians and so on â€“ have their own agenda and try to push decisionâ€makers to act in their interests.
â€¢Â The key is the crime intelligence product is likely to be the only objective voice that decisionâ€makerâ€™s hear.
a. Working with the audience
â€¢Â Analysts have to liaise and communicate with clients during the development of products so that the final product can be targeted accurately.
â€¢Â How clients define success is important, because products can be tailored to reflect this need of decisionâ€makers.
â€¢Â If analysts produce a good product, they should expect that it will be photocopied, faxed, eâ€mailed and referenced by/to clients that they are not aware of and potentially never expected.
â€¢Â Analysts should aim to maximize the distribution of their products, rather than work on the needâ€toâ€know principle.
â€¢Â Analytical units being close to decisionâ€makers runs counter to the thinking in many police departments, but having access to street data is meaningless if analysts cannot influence decisionâ€makers.
a. Embracing networks
â€¢Â Dupontâ€™s work is useful for articulating the different types of networks that can aid with crime prevention stemming from intelligence work.
b. Recommending action
â€¢Â Within the policing environment, it is important that analysts make recommendations to decisionâ€makers.
â€¢Â As Cope points out, there is a difference between analysts making recommendations, and the decisionâ€maker accepting the recommendation.
â€¢Â Military analysts sometime struggle with the need to make recommendations, coming from a military area where decisionâ€makers are trained in using intelligence products, and there are distinct organizational gaps between analysts and their clients.
â€¢Â Alternatives to the traditional written report should always be considered.
â€¢Â Moving beyond the tactical to a strategic focus is effective for crime prevention.
â€¢Â Influencing decisionâ€makers requires resolute accuracy in detail and fact, but also a flair for the imaginative in terms of getting clientsâ€™ attention.
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