There are two kinds of assisted membrane carrier-mediated transport and vesicular transport. Carrier mediated transport can be active transport or passive transport including small molecules while vesicular transport is always active and includes very large molecules.
Carrier mediated transport:
Carrier is defined as the protein that spreads the membrane and changes the shape of the membrane to help molecules to move across from one side to the other. There are three categories of carrier-mediated transport:
â€¢ Facilitated diffusion: In this kind of diffusion, there is no expenditure of energy. Carrier molecules are involved, that move down the concentration gradient that is unladen on the other side. Example: Glucose. There is a net movement of molecules in the direction of the concentration gradient. This kind of diffusion is used in the case of transportation of charged ions, large polar molecules. There are carrier proteins involved in this that are different slightly from the ones used in active transport. On one side the substrate is taken off the gated channel carrier and there is no use of ATP. The substrate gets discharged into the cell.
â€¢ Diffusion through channels: In this kind of diffusion method, there is the involvement of membrane proteins that form channels known as water-filled pores. Diffusion occurs through specific channels. Example: Na+ or K+ channels. Diffusion occurs down the electrochemical gradient that is passive. This type of diffusion can be gated that can be opened or closed from the external stimuli. It can be electrically gated or chemically gated.
â€¢ Active transport: It is a kind of transport that occurs against the concentration gradient by the expenditure of energy hence it is against the concentration gradient. It requires special pumps known as ATPase pumps so that kind of transport is known as primary active transport and if it uses an electrochemical gradient it is known as secondary active transport. If the transfer occurs on the low concentration side. The side with the higher affinity binds the solute and there is a conformation change in the molecule by which flipping occurs and molecules get to the other side. If the transfer occurs on the high concentration side, then there is reduced affinity with the solute, and unloading of the solute occurs and the molecule goes to its previous conformation. A carrier protein moves particles from low concentration to high concentration. There is a presence of receptors that binds to the binding site of the carrier molecule. According to the binding affinity the carrier protein substrate is discharged. Examples of active pumps are the H+ pump that transports H+ into the stomach.
â€¢ Secondary Active transport: In this kind of transport, the co-transporter is involved. The intestine and the kidney help in the transportation of glucose against the concentration gradient. Cotransporter uses Na+ gradient to push glucose against the gradient of concentration.
Some vacuoles and vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and it releases or transports various chemicals out of the cell or inside the cell. Exocytosis and Endocytosis are used for vesicular transport. â€¢ Endocytosis:
In this kind of transport, the cell membrane is bulged inward by the molecule, thereby forming a vesicle and the transport is inside the cell. Phagocytosis is a kind of endocytosis; in this, the cell is engulfed. In Receptor-mediated endocytosis, the material is needed to be transported and it binds with certain molecules in the cell membrane. In pinocytosis, the cell membrane surrounds the droplets of fluid. Example: in case of transport of insulin.
â€¢ Exocytosis: It occurs when the transport is out of the cell. The large molecules are removed from the cell by this. There is a formation of vesicles inside the cell that fuses with the membrane of the cell to secrete various contents. Examples: insulin, mucus. Contents are released into the extracellular spaces.
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